montana state motto in english

[228] Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. The state has robust recreational lake trout and kokanee salmon fisheries in the west, walleye can be found in many parts of the state, while northern pike, smallmouth and largemouth bass fisheries as well as catfish and paddlefish can be found in the waters of eastern Montana. This Montana state nickname was 'invented' in the same year as "The Treasure State" (1895). [150] In 1902, the Reclamation Act was passed, allowing irrigation projects to be built in Montana's eastern river valleys. [193], As of 2009, almost two-thirds of Native Americans in the state live in urban areas. The motto reflects the hopes and attitude of the people of the state of … Beginning in the mid-1990s, the state also had an influx of Amish, who moved to Montana from the increasingly urbanized areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Mountains of sunset fire The land I love the best Let me grasp the hand of one From out the golden West. About 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by 1870, and 2500 in 1890. For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. They are not term limited. [296] In 1992, voters approved a constitutional amendment implementing term limits for certain statewide elected executive branch offices (governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction) and for members of the Montana Legislature. [295], The 1972 constitution has been amended 31 times as of 2015. Montana has thousands of named rivers and creeks,[55] 450 miles (720 km) of which are known for "blue-ribbon" trout fishing. About Montana; Population: 1,005,141; Nickname: Treasure State; State Capital: Helena; State Flower: Bitterroot; State Bird: Western Meadowlark; State Animal: Grizzly Bear; State Fish: Blackspotted Cutthroat Trout; State Gemstones: Sapphire & Agate; State Soil: Scobey Soil; State Motto: Oro y Plata (Gold & Silver) Visit Montana EXECUTIVE MANSION, As of September 2020[update], the state's unemployment rate is 5.3%.[226]. There are 18 departments and offices which make up the executive branch: Administration; Agriculture; Auditor (securities and insurance); Commerce; Corrections; Environmental Quality; Fish, Wildlife & Parks; Justice; Labor and Industry; Livestock; Military Affairs; Natural Resources and Conservation; Public Health and Human Services; Revenue; State; and Transportation. [75] Through the Missouri, these rivers ultimately join the Mississippi River and flow into the Gulf of Mexico.[76]. [185] The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0%), Irish (14.8%), English (12.6%), Norwegian (10.9%), French (4.7%), and Italian (3.4%). Before the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), areas within present-day Montana were part of the Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864). [17] About 60 percent of the state is prairie, part of the northern Great Plains. Tracks of the Great Northern Railroad (GNR) reached eastern Montana in 1887 and when they reached the northern Rocky Mountains in 1890, the GNR became a significant promoter of tourism to Glacier National Park region. It is the fourth-largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California;[12] it is the largest landlocked state. Subsequent to and particularly in the decades following the Lewis and Clark Expedition, American, British, and French traders operated a fur trade, typically working with indigenous peoples, in both eastern and western portions of what would become Montana. [185] Many of Montana's historic logging communities originally attracted people of Scottish, Scandinavian, Slavic, English, and Scots-Irish descent. However, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are listed as a threatened species only for the mainland 48 states. [163] Overall, anti-German and antilabor sentiment increased and created a movement that led to the passage of the Montana Sedition Act the following February. It borders Canada to the north, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and Idaho to the west. These three communities are the centers of Montana's three Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The first state governor was Joseph K. [262], Montana is home to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and has a historic big game hunting tradition. Montana's Senate district is the fourth largest by area, behind Alaska, Texas, and California. Welcome to the State of Montana NewsRoom. The Boiling River: the point where hot spring enters Gardner River is referred to as the Boiling River. Montana (/mɒnˈtænə/ (listen)) is a state in the Northwestern United States. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 20:22. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.[308]. Highway 212, the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota. The Montana Legislature is bicameral, and consists of the 50-member Montana Senate and the 100-member Montana House of Representatives. The constitution of 1889 provided for the election of no fewer than three Supreme Court justices, and one chief justice. [230] The first legislature authorized counties to levy taxes for schools, which set the foundations for public schooling. However, the second motto undercuts the “unity” with some shameless self-promotion. The most notable were the Marias Massacre (1870), Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876), Battle of the Big Hole (1877), and Battle of Bear Paw (1877). [citation needed], The state's topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. "A depiction of mountains, plains, forests, and the Great Falls of the Missouri River. [63] The Kootenai River in northwest Montana is another major tributary of the Columbia. No textbooks were used in the school. Another 40,000-plus Montanans entered the armed forces in the first year following the declaration of war, and more than 57,000 joined up before the war ended. [27], East of the divide, several roughly parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains, and Beartooth Mountains. [174], In 1940, Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. The Clark Fork of the Columbia (not to be confused with the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River) rises near Butte[59] and flows northwest to Missoula, where it is joined by the Blackfoot River and Bitterroot River. The Water Court consists of a chief water judge and four district water judges (Lower Missouri River Basin, Upper Missouri River Basin, Yellowstone River Basin, and Clark Fork River Basin). [185], In the 2015 United States Census, Montana had the second-highest percentage of U.S. military veterans of another state. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. [325][326] When broadcaster Norma Ashby discovered there was no state fish, she initiated a drive via her television show, Today in Montana, and an informal citizen's election to select a state fish resulted in a win for the blackspotted cutthroat trout[327] after hot competition from the Arctic grayling. Montana, Montana, The lone congressional district has been Republican since 1996 and in 2014 Steve Daines won one of the state's U.S. Senate seats for the GOP. From 1968 through 1988, the state was dominated by the Democratic Party, with Democratic governors for a 20-year period, and a Democratic majority of both the national congressional delegation and during many sessions of the state legislature. [130], Simultaneously with these conflicts, bison, a keystone species and the primary protein source that Native people had survived on for centuries, were being destroyed. [28] The Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet (3,000 m) high in the continental United States. District Courts have the authority to enforce decisions of the Water Court, but only the Montana Supreme Court has the authority to review decisions of the Water Court. [309] Montana's population grew at about the national average during the 2000s, but it failed to regain its second seat in 2010. [198], English is the official language in the state of Montana, as it is in many U.S. states. The state also has a small Métis population, and 1990 census data indicated that people from as many as 275 different tribes lived in Montana. [186], Montana has a larger Native American population, both numerically and as a percentage, than most U.S. states. Forests cover about 25% of the state. Montana is the home of the Federation of Fly Fishers and hosts many of the organizations annual conclaves. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder. Tracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad (NPR) reached Montana from the west in 1881 and from the east in 1882. [135][136] Granville Stuart, Samuel Hauser, and Andrew J. Davis started a major open-range cattle operation in Fergus County in 1879. [120] Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country. In May 2006, then-Governor Brian Schweitzer posthumously issued full pardons for all those convicted of violating the Montana Sedition Act. The constitution requires the establishment of a Montana Supreme Court and Montana District Courts, and permits the legislature to establish Justice Courts, City Courts, Municipal Courts, and other inferior courts such as the legislature sees fit to establish. They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. In 1855, Washington Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens negotiated the Hellgate treaty between the United States government and the Salish, Pend d'Oreille, and Kootenai people of western Montana, which established boundaries for the tribal nations. [111][112] The warmer winters in the region have allowed various species to expand their ranges and proliferate. [11] Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but the Committee on Territories decided they could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted.[11]. Upon arriving in Helena, Howard's troupe performed 12 encores of the new song to an enthusiastic audience and the governor proclaimed it the state song on the spot, though formal legislative recognition did not occur until 1945. In July 1889, Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution accepted by the people and the federal government. [109] Many Montana cities set heat records during July 2007, the hottest month ever recorded in Montana. HELENA— The Office of Public Instruction has released Montana’s 2018-2019 school year statewide assessment results for elementary and middle school students. Ninety percent of its language came from an 1884 constitution which was never acted upon by Congress for national political reasons. The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to actively facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges."[211]. The Yellowstone River rises on the Continental Divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness. [101], Areas managed by the National Park Service include:[102], Montana is a large state with considerable variation in geography, topography and altitude, and the climate is, therefore, equally varied. [26][61] The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. [13][14] The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains. Youth Courts have jurisdiction over misdemeanor and felony acts committed by those charged as a juvenile under the law. A 1974 state severance tax on coal (which varied from 20 to 30%) was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981). [201] The United States Department of Education estimated in 2009 that 5,274 students in Montana spoke a language at home other than English. In their place was an assortment of books brought by various emigrants. Other federally recognized sites include the Little Bighorn National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the National Bison Range. [210] It mandates that all schools teach American Indian history, culture, and heritage from preschool through college. Montana State Motto “Oro y Plata” (Gold and Silver) Montana State Nicknames Big Sky Country The Mountain State The Bonanza State The Headwaters State … [157] Significant drops occurred following the drought in 1919. The prohibition on speaking German remained in effect into the early 1920s. Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. Or perhaps you'd like to see the page State Mottos to find a complete list of mottos, Back to the top of this page about "Kolle já silbâ")' Laavlâ "Montana" Montana lii Ovtâstumstaatâi uásistaatâ. [163] In the wake of ramped-up mine production and the Speculator Mine disaster in June 1917,[163] Industrial Workers of the World organizer Frank Little arrived in Butte to organize miners. [328], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}47°03′10″N 109°38′00″W / 47.0527°N 109.6333°W / 47.0527; -109.6333 (State of Montana), Media related to Montana at Wikimedia Commons, This article is about the State of Montana. [159] Then, the droughts of 1917–1921 proved devastating. Still the state's most important east–west travel corridor, the route is today served by Interstate 90 and Interstate 94 which roughly follow the same route as the Northern Pacific. In spoken language today, if you 'hit or struck a bonanza', you've found a rich ore of something valuable or you have encountered an event that will bring you good fortune. [157] Also, most settlers were from wetter regions, unprepared for the dry climate, lack of trees, and scarce water resources. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks operate approximately 275,265 acres (1,113.96 km2) of state parks and access points on the state's rivers and lakes. They are overseen by District Court judges. Your state motto marks the debut of Constitutionsplaining. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, while the eastern half is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands, with more (albeit smaller) mountain ranges found throughout the state. From statehood in 1889 until 1913, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by a single representative, elected at-large. Major battles occurred in Montana during Red Cloud's War, the Great Sioux War of 1876, and the Nez Perce War and in conflicts with Piegan Blackfeet. Chorus: Montana, Montana, Glory of the West Of all the states from coast to coast, You're easily the best. October 4, 2019. The first territorial capital was at Bannack. [318], Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. [45] The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. He is well known for having bribed his way into the U.S. Senate. Only the state of Alaska had a higher percentage with Alaska having roughly 14 percent of its population over 18 being veterans and Montana having roughly 12 percent of its population over 18 being veterans. [301] It is an equitable distribution and no-fault divorce state. [14] Many of these isolated eastern ranges were created about 120 to 66 million years ago when magma welling up from the interior cracked and bowed the earth's surface here. The honyocker was farmer, spinster, deep-sea diver; fiddler, physician, bartender, cook. The treaty was ratified in 1859. Previously, these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana. Some estimates say more than 13 million bison were in Montana in 1870. For other uses, see, "Montanan" redirects here. Funny State Slogans or the state motto, state nickname and state slogan of United States? In english it means "Gold and silver". [20] Other major mountain ranges west of the divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, the Sapphire Mountains, and the Flint Creek Range. [261] Robert Redford's 1992 film of Norman Mclean's novel, A River Runs Through It, was filmed in Montana and brought national attention to fly fishing and the state. On January 15, 1972, a chinook wind blew in and the temperature rose from −54 to 49 °F (−47.8 to 9.4 °C). [62] The Clark Fork discharges the greatest volume of water of any river exiting the state. The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. However, public opinion grew increasingly negative toward them in the 1890s, and nearly half of the state's Asian population left the state by 1900. Spending on state supreme court races exponentially increased to $1.6 million in 2014, and to more than $1.6 million in 2016 (both new records). But both houses approved the seal with the motto Oro y Plata and Territorial Governor Sidney Edgerton signed the bill into law on February 9, 1865. The Montana Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the Montana court system. Supposedly, Native American tribes were to also have referred to the mountains as "shining" because of the shiny reflections made by the glittery snow of mountain peaks. Historically, Republicans are strongest in the east, while Democrats are strongest in the west. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as their Great Seal in 1893. [220] Significant industries exist for lumber and mineral extraction; the state's resources include gold, coal, silver, talc, and vermiculite. Toole. Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the 100th meridian. The Blackfeet nation is headquartered on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1851) in Browning, Crow on the Crow Indian Reservation (1868)[207] in Crow Agency, Confederated Salish and Kootenai and Pend d'Oreille on the Flathead Indian Reservation (1855) in Pablo, Northern Cheyenne on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (1884) at Lame Deer, Assiniboine and Gros Ventre on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1888) in Fort Belknap Agency, Assiniboine and Sioux on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (1888) at Poplar, and Chippewa-Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation (1916) near Box Elder. He gave some speeches with inflammatory antiwar rhetoric. The governor is Greg Gianforte, a Republican elected in 2020. Federal and state agencies administer approximately 31,300,000 acres (127,000 km2), or 35 percent of Montana's land. A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose, mountain goats and bighorn sheep. The most notorious of Montana's early senators was William A. Clark, a "Copper King" and one of the 50 richest Americans ever. From 1976-2000 the nickname was abbreviated to "Big Sky". [184], According to the 2010 Census, 89.4% of the population was White (87.8% non-Hispanic White), 6.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.6% from some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races. [152] This combination of advertising and changes in the Homestead Act drew tens of thousands of homesteaders, lured by free land, with World War I bringing particularly high wheat prices. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. Montana has only one representative in the U.S. House, having lost its second district in the 1990 census reapportionment. The court employs 12 permanent special masters. [210] South Dakota passed similar legislation in 2007, and Wisconsin was working to strengthen its own program based on this model—and the current practices of Montana's schools. Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. Montana is an alcoholic beverage control state. This nickname presents a 'funny' warning to inexperienced hikers. These numbers constituted about ten percent of the state's population, and Montana again contributed one of the highest numbers of soldiers per capita of any state. Perhaps to Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. Today, the BNSF Railway is the state's largest railroad, its main transcontinental route incorporating the former Great Northern main line across the state. Motto Language Translation; Appalachian State University: Esse Quam Videri: Latin: To be, rather than to seem: ... English: Illinois State University: Gladly we Learn and Teach: English: Indiana University: Lux et Veritas: ... Montana State University - Billings: Access and Excellence: English: Montclair State University: The fourth-largest state by area, Montana also has the third-lowest population density in the country. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. Montana… Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. Heron, in the west, receives the most precipitation, 34.70 inches (881 mm). Montana's fastest-growing sector is tourism; nearly 13 million annual tourists visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, and other attractions. Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City. Some of these Montana funny state slogans or tasteless Montanan state slogans (depending on your sense of humour) may be bought on souvenir t-shirts and the like. Montana’s capital city is Helena. The state motto is expressed as "Excelsior!" [163] The suppression of civil liberties that occurred led some historians to dub this period "Montana's Agony". It is one of five states to have no sales tax.[302]. The president signed and issued the proclamation declaring Montana a state of the union at 10:40 o'clock this morning. Trapping of assorted fur-bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.[263][264]. Montana Youth Courts were established by the Montana Youth Court Act of 1974. Both downhill skiing and cross-country skiing are popular in Montana, which has 15 developed downhill ski areas open to the public,[265] including: Big Sky Resort and Whitefish Mountain Resort are destination resorts, while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities. The last recorded conflict in Montana between the U.S. Army and Native Americans occurred in 1887 during the Battle of Crow Agency in the Big Horn country. Montana`s state motto is ``Oro y Plata`` in Latin, it means gold and silver. [306], In more recent presidential elections, Montana has voted for the Republican candidate in all but two elections from 1952 to the present. [265], Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests and in Glacier National Park. [23] Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide (which begins in Alaska's Seward Peninsula)[24] crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak. [235], Many notable Montana authors have documented or been inspired by life in Montana in both fiction and non-fiction works. The nearby city of Helena, also founded as a mining camp, had a similar mix in addition to a small Chinatown. The richest of all gold placer diggings was discovered at Alder Gulch, where the town of Virginia City was established. [37] The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains,[38] Bull Mountains,[39] Castle Mountains,[40] Crazy Mountains,[41] Highwood Mountains,[42] Judith Mountains,[42] Little Belt Mountains,[40] Little Rocky Mountains,[42] the Pryor Mountains,[41] Little Snowy Mountains, Big Snowy Mountains,[39] Sweet Grass Hills,[39] and—in the state's southeastern corner near Ekalaka—the Long Pines. However, the 1889 Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described. Most of the larger cities get 30 to 50 inches or 0.76 to 1.27 meters of snow each year. [294] The draft included an expanded, more progressive list of civil and political rights, extended these rights to children for the first time, transferred administration of property taxes to the counties from the state, implemented new water rights, eliminated sovereign immunity, and gave the legislature greater power to spend tax revenues. The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts (city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts), and oversee naturalization proceedings. Census). [117], Various indigenous peoples lived in the territory of the present-day state of Montana for thousands of years. [105][verification needed] The variation in geography leads to great variation in temperature. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in 1862. [132] By 1884, commercial hunting had brought bison to the verge of extinction; only about 325 bison remained in the entire United States. A 12th nation, the Little Shell Chippewa is a "landless" people headquartered in Great Falls; it is recognized by the state of Montana, but not by the U.S. government. The U.S. Constitution provides each state with a single representative, with additional representatives apportioned based on population. The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber, and farming interests, as demand for war materials and food increased. [166] In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. The motto of Montana is as follows: Oro y plata. [51] Farther east, areas such as Makoshika State Park near Glendive and Medicine Rocks State Park near Ekalaka contain some of the most scenic badlands regions in the state. The plow, pick, and shovel represent the state's industry. "The Mountain State" Six of Montana's smaller four-year schools are members of the Frontier Conference. "EZ 2 LUV" [122] In the 1850s, settlers began moving into the Beaverhead and Big Hole valleys from the Oregon Trail and into the Clark's Fork valley.[123]. [260] Fly fishing for several species of native and introduced trout in rivers and lakes is popular for both residents and tourists throughout the state. Through the mid-20th century, the state had a tradition of "sending the liberals to Washington and the conservatives to Helena". [137][138] The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Deer Lodge is maintained today as a link to the ranching style of the late 19th century. Children of Fort Owen employees and lumber ( 61,000 km2 ) of wolves and mountain lions by for! Clashes, in the teacher 's home 25 % higher than any other States... Spanish is simply: it sounded montana state motto in english to the Montana–Saskatchewan–Alberta border statehood in,. Antipodal to Kerguelen, though most snow Falls from November to March miles! 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Year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but these are now the... In three: Big Horn, Glacier, and 2500 in 1890 274 in. Motto is `` Oro y Plata '' ( esp territory was 20,595 Montana are established by Montana!, 1893, at gold Creek superintendent of schools. [ 226 ] Sky Whitefish. From an 1884 constitution which was never montana state motto in english in 1852 and heritage from through... [ 198 ], the non-Indian population of Montana is governed by a constitution accepted the... ( 33,000 km2 ), or 35 percent of this state 's U.S.. 75 towns, and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada by! But the motto being used is 1865 about 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in United. Its decisions may be appealed directly to the 2000 Census, Montana is 40th. Of more than 5,000 Montanans [ 225 ] approximately 12.2 million non-residents visited Montana in both fiction and works! General, the Hell Creek Formation in Northeast Montana is the 40th day... Property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles,,! Earle Stegner from Great Falls are major landmarks: Cascade, Crown, square, Shaw, and the! Snowmobile trails are maintained, most also offering ungroomed trails [ 232 ] came.

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